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Renewable energy sources are those that can be used to generate electricity and other forms of energy. In recent years, the use of solar energy has reduced the use of fossil fuel energy, and renewable energy sources can be considered the primary power sources. Renewable energy can take many forms, with wind energy, solar energy, and hydro energy being three of the most promising in the UK (United Kingdom). The photons that make up the light from the sun are captured by a solar cell. Wind energy generates energy by utilizing wind speed, whereas hydro energy generates electricity by utilizing ocean water level via a hydro turbine.
The available renewable energy system in the UK
Natural energy is taken to produce electric energy in renewable technology. There are various sources of renewable energy in the UK such as hydro, biomass, wind, marine, wave, and solar. The technology is also used sources of natural power which could be replaced very easily such as biomass. The electricity produced by the renewable energy source is 20 percent of the total electricity produced in the UK. Renewable energy will be one of the important sources of energy in the future because it reduces carbon emissions (Ren et al. 2018). The UK takes different strategic measurements to reduce carbon emissions and dependency on fossil fuels.
The UK took its strategic position to create wind energy because there are plenty of beaches in the UK which are ideal for the installation of wind energy firms. The average wind speed in the UK is high which gives it an advantage in wind power generation. The UK has both offshore and onshore wind farms and they are an important part of the electricity generation of the UK. A significant amount is invested by the UK in the offshore farm because it has much capacity for electricity generation. There are various challenges faced by the UK in the wind power generation farm because the wind farms are totally weather dependent and the installation of wind turbines needs a huge amount of place. The UK generates 8,113-megawatt electricity from offshore farms.
The United Kingdom's solar power plant has been ranked first in the world for maximum electricity production using photovoltaic cells. The total energy supply achieved by solar power generation in the United Kingdom has been 4.2 percent of total electricity generated in the country. The popularity of solar energy as a renewable source of energy has skyrocketed. Solar energy has increased total electricity generation by up to 35%. In 2016, solar PV produced 25.4 percent of the total amount of electricity produced. In 2017, it had risen to 30 percent (Soliman et al. 2018). It will have risen to 37.5 percent by 2021. This is why solar power's annual power generation has skyrocketed. There are various challenges faced by the UK in the wind power generation farm because the wind farms are totally weather dependent and the installation cost of the solar panels is high.
The UK has prominent technology for hydroelectric power generation and the flows of the water are used to produce electricity with the help of a turbine. The natural flow of the river, as well as the dams, is used to generate hydro energy. Most of the dams in the UK used to generate hydroelectricity (Agyekum et al. 2021). The UK has a total of 4700 megawatt capacity of hydro energy and the UK is expected to increase this capacity to reduce the dependency on fossil fuel for electricity generation. There are various challenges faced by the UK in the Hydro energy generation farm because the Hydro energy is totally weather dependent and dams create various environmental misbalances in the water body.
Design and modeling of solar PV panel
Solar panel Photovoltaic (PV) consists of a Photovoltaic cell that converts solar energy into electrical energy. In the solar panel PV, a various number of solar cells consist of creating a large and long-lasting solar panel to produce electricity. In the UK there are three types of solar PV available (Premkumar and Sowmya, 2019). These are Thin-film, Polycrystalline, and monocrystalline. Among all these monocrystalline solar PV are the most efficient.
Results of PV simulation
The net amount of charge in the solar PV panel is controlled by a charge controller. There are different types of charge controllers in the market. The simulation, modeling, and analysis of the PV play a great role in the solar system (Ouedraogo et al. 2020). The modeling of the PV system shows good results. PWM technology is the basis of the Loom solar 10A charge controller. the Loom solar 10A charge controller controls voltage automatically.
Design and modeling of wind turbine generator
The diagram above depicts a wind turbine generator. The turbine employs a variety of elements. Electrical equipment is utilized to generate electric power in wind turbines. The turbine is an important component of a wind turbine. A reduced "rpm electrical generator" is responsible for converting the automatically adjusting energy created by existing strength into useful electricity used in homes and is at the heart of any type of renewable energy power strategy.
Results of simulation of wind turbine
The wind speed determines the power of a wind turbine. The above diagram clearly shows the power torque and power of the wind turbine generation system. Wind turbines generate a variety of power sources; power generation is depicted in this figure. Torque is a rotary force that twists the turbine's blades and generates electricity (Moussa et al. 2019). The blades reduced the air, resulting in torque and electricity. The torque of a wind turbine system is calculated as the power of the wind turbine = torque of the blades* angular velocity of the blades. In this case, the torque of the wind turbine is 0.01015 when the power of the wind turbine is 5000 watts. The total power of the turbine is increased as the torque increases.
In recent years, the use of solar energy has reduced the use of fossil fuel energy, and renewable energy sources can be considered the primary power sources. Renewable energy can take many forms, with wind energy, solar energy, and hydro energy being three of the most promising in the UK. Renewable energy power station installation is costly.
Moussa, I., Bouallegue, A., and Khedher, A. 2019. New wind turbine emulator based on DC machine: hardware implementation using FPGA board for an open?loop operation. IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, 13(6), 896-902.
Ren, Z., Jiang, Z., Skjetne, R., and Gao, Z. 2018. Development and application of a simulator for offshore wind turbine blades installation. Ocean Engineering, 166, 380-395.
Soliman, M. A., Hasanien, H. M., Azazi, H. Z., El-Kholy, E. E., & Mahmoud, S. A. (2018). An adaptive fuzzy logic control strategy for performance enhancement of a grid-connected PMSG-based wind turbine. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 15(6), 3163-3173.
Agyekum, E. B., PraveenKumar, S., Alwan, N. T., Velkin, V. I., Shcheklein, S. E., and Yaqoob, S. J. 2021. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of a Combination of Active and Passive Cooling Mechanism on the Thermal Characteristics and Efficiency of Solar PV Module. Inventions, 6(4), 63.
Ouedraogo, A., Mogmenga, L., Bado, N., Ky, T. S. M., and Bathiebo, D. J. 2020. Analysis of the single-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) module performances under low γ-radiation from radioactive source. Silicon, 12(8), 1831-1837.
Premkumar, M., & Sowmya, R. (2019). Certain study on MPPT algorithms to track the global MPP under partial shading on solar PV module/array. International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems, 8(04), 405-416.
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