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The report will throw a light on the social policy issues which are based in India. The social policy and development aim to ensure the individuals and communities are enabled to participate in the contribution of the national development while enjoying fundamental freedom & human rights. There is a relationship between social policy and development. It has been identified that the social policy provides a social purpose for the development of the economy of a country. The social policy provides a framework for the development of the activities in society. Social policy is important in the country because it will help them and ensures that everyone in the society lives in peace and harmony away from conflicts.
In this report, a detailed description will be given of the social policy of India. Further, the social policy issues and challenges will be identified. A detailed description of the national policy will be identified that has been initiated by the government of India. In this report, a detailed description of the policy implications will be identified while giving suggestions for eliminating child labor in India.
Social Policy aims to improve the human welfare to meet the needs of humans such as health, economic security, housing, and education. With the help of social policy, it will ensure the welfare of individuals through the governmental regulations. As the social policy is affected by the social developments and it changes according to the needs of the individuals (Thorat and Verma, 2017). To make the changes in the social policy, it is important to know about the condition of the country. The improvement of the social policy and development is necessary because it helps to understand the problems and issues of the society which affect the individuals in the world. The Social policy issues include welfare poverty reduction, child labor, education policy, social exclusion, social care, family policy, and so on.
The main social policy issue related to India that has been selected is Child Labor. Child labor refers to the work which is physically, emotionally, and mentally harmful for the children. It has been identified that child labor is the consequence and the cause of poverty. It has been identified that over the past year India has reduced the number of the children who are involved in child labor. Child labor is the major social policy issue in the country of India. It has been identified by the researcher that there are around 152 million children are working as child laborers out of which India is approx. 7.3 percent in the numbers (Aiyar and Kapur, 2019). It has been analyzed that Uttar Pradesh is the state which has the highest rate of child labor. As per the census of 2011, the working children in India are 10.1 million between the ages of 5-14. There are many issues and challenges of this that have an impact on society as well as on the children of the same group who are working as child labor in India. These are as follows:
The major problem that has been found out from the social policy issues and challenges is child labor. The problem of these social issues is that in India 10.01 million populations are in the line of child labor which has been causing the poverty, unemployment rate, education, and so on. The responsibility to address the problem of child labor is by the government by which they have been introducing many schemes for removing the child labor from India. To address the problem of child labor, the government needs to finds out the records of the data and compares them with the current data. It has been analyzed that if the government compares the current data with the past data then it will help them to know about the current position of India and helps them to give the new ideas to more remove the child labor from India.
The problem has already been addressing by the government of India while initiating the National Child Labor Project Scheme (Greer et al, 2021). It has been identified that with the help of this scheme the government of India has been trying to give them opportunities to the people for their educations so that they can earn while eliminating the working at the childhood. With the help of NGOs, the government has been initiating to educate the children's while improving their mental and physical health. It is important to improve their mental and physical health because it helps them to focus more on their education.
It has been identified that the government has been recognizing the outcome of child labor which has multiple causes and dimensions. For this, the government of India has been enacted legislation and prepared the national policy for removing child labor from India. It has been identified that the national policy scheme has an important pillar of the national policy on the elimination of child labor which are as follows:
For removing the child labor in India, the government of India has initiated the National Child Labor Project Scheme in 1988 to recover working children in the country. The national child labor project scheme is the major central sector scheme for the recovering of child labor. It has been identified that at this time also the survey has been conducted of the child labor engaged in the hazardous occupations with which the processes have also been conducted. It has been identified that the National policy scheme adopted by the government has been implemented through a registered society under the chairmanship of the administrative head of the district (Jhansirani 2018). At present, it has been identified that 6000 special schools are in operation under the national child labor project scheme. In this scheme, more than 10 lakhs of children have been mainstreamed into the formal education system. At this time, the steps are to be taken by the government for the setting of the new National Child Labor Projects. The steps are as follows:
There are many suggestions that should be used by the government of the country. These are as follows:
There are many policy implications that have a positive or the negative impact on the government of India of the child labor. These are as follows:
It has been concluded that child labor has major issues in India that has an impact on the country. It has been analyzed that social policy aims to improve the mental and physical health of the children's while providing them the opportunity for education. National Child Labor Project Scheme has been analyzed that has been initiated by the government in India. It has also been analyzed that with the help of this scheme they are providing the resources to the population of the country to eradicate child labor from India. It has been analyzed that child labor forces the children to cut off from schooling and their health while restricting from their fundamental rights and threatening their future. From the above report it has been analyzed that the main cause for the child labor that has been found out by the government studies, policy statements, and also as per the economic and social scholars, these are as follows economic uncertainties, Lack of education, Poverty, weak social awareness, the weak policy of legal framework, employment and so on. The three pillars of the National Child labor project scheme have been identified which include the conjunction of government developmental programmers, project-based plan for action, and Legislative action plan.
Aiyar, Y. and Kapur, A., 2019. The centralization vs decentralization tug of war and the emerging narrative of fiscal federalism for social policy in India. Regional & Federal Studies, 29(2), pp.187-217.
Cho, S.H., Fang, X., Tayur, S. and Xu, Y., 2019. Combating child labor: Incentives and information disclosure in global supply chains. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 21(3), pp.692-711.
Coll, C.G. and Magnuson, K., 2019. Theory and research with children of color: Implications for social policy. In Children of Color (pp. 219-255). Routledge.
Greer, S.L., Jarman, H., Falkenbach, M., Massard da Fonseca, E., Raj, M. and King, E.J., 2021. Social policy as an integral component of pandemic response: Learning from COVID-19 in Brazil, Germany, India and the United States. Global Public Health, pp.1-14.
Ibrahim, A., Abdalla, S.M., Jafer, M., Abdelgadir, J. and De Vries, N., 2019. Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low-and middle-income countries. Journal of Public Health, 41(1), pp.18-26.
Jhansirani, P., 2018. Health related issues among the child labor. International Journal of Chemical & Material Sciences (IJCMS), 1(1), pp.33-40.
Menon, N. and van der Meulen Rodgers, Y., 2018. Child labor and the minimum wage: Evidence from India. Journal of Comparative Economics, 46(2), pp.480-494.
Momen, M.N., 2020. Child Labor: History, Process, and Consequences.
Ramos, A.K., 2018. Child labor in global tobacco production: a human rights approach to an enduring dilemma. Health and human rights, 20(2), p.235.
Thorat, S. and Verma, S., 2017. Social science research in India: Status, issues, and policies. Oxford University Press.
Tillin, L. and Duckett, J., 2017. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 55(3), pp.253-277.
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